Fertilizer Advice and Maintenance of Houseplants
Regardless of the type of plants that are kept at home, generally, the important factors in their health include the following, which, if not observed, will cause yellowing and damage to the plant:
Temperature and Humidity
Soil and Nutrition
Watering the plants in the correct way determines the longevity of the plant. The temperature of the water used should not be too hot or cold so as not to damage the plant. The soil in flowering plants should be moist, but avoid excessive watering and permanent wetting of the soil. The easiest way to check if the plants need watering or not is to put your fingertip about 2.5 cm above the soil. If the fingertip feels dry, you can water it. But this is a general rule that does not apply to cacti in winter. Watering schedules vary among plants because the unique needs of each plant will change throughout the year. Plants that are kept next to windows facing the sun need more watering than plants that are kept in dark corners of the house or workplace. Plants often need less water during the winter. Plants need more water at the time of flowering and during the growth period. Therefore, you should adjust the amount of watering accordingly so that the root of the plant does not rot with improper watering.
The lighting conditions of plants are defined in the following modes:
Full sun: Most plants, except cacti, should not be exposed to direct sunlight throughout the day.
Combination of sun and shade: For most plants, it is better to receive sunlight for a few hours during the day in the morning or evening and be placed near the east or west window. Flowering plants should not be exposed to midday sunlight. The best way to grow plants is to keep them in a place that combines sun and shade.
Full shade or low light: Most plants, especially flowering plants, do not grow best in shady or low light conditions. However, some plants can adapt to these conditions and have little growth. In this case, placing it next to a north-facing window provides full shade or partial lighting.
Bright and no direct sun: This mode is suitable for most plants that have foliage and many types of cut flowers. The best place for this mode is to be next to a south window. If the east and west windows are big enough to create proper exposure, it is also suitable. Because the plant is not exposed to direct sunlight during early afternoon and sunset.
Temperature and Humidity
The best temperature for keeping most houseplants is between 15 and 24 degrees Celsius. A temperature of more than 24 degrees Celsius is not suitable for most plants indoors and is too high, although it is good outdoors, but the main reason for not tolerating higher temperatures is due to the difference in air humidity and sunlight conditions. When the temperature is higher than the recommended limit, i.e. higher than 24 degrees Celsius, you should adjust the humidity and temperature by spraying and sprinkling water on the leaves. Sudden increase in temperature and high heating also lead to shrinking, wilting and browning of leaves. A temperature lower than the standard, i.e. lower than 15 degrees Celsius, has more destructive effects than a high temperature and causes the death of the plant. Generally, a sharp drop in temperature can lead to yellowing and falling leaves.
Soil and Nutrition
Proper nutrition of plants is important to provide nutrients that are needed during the growing season. Some people don't fertilize plants enough and others use too many types of fertilizers, which are both wrong and unprincipled. Sixteen chemical elements are important for plant growth and survival. Of these elements, 3 non-mineral nutrients, which include the chemical elements hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and carbon (C), are found naturally in the atmosphere around us and in water, and play a special role in plants for photosynthesis. In the photosynthesis cycle, carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) and sunlight are captured and used to synthesize food in the form of glucose or sugar and produce oxygen (O2) in the plant. To obtain the health and optimal growth of plants, the soil plays an important role in the plant and can contain useful nutrients, but in many cases, it is more important to be able to use the nutrients in the soil by the plants. Because the soil conditions have a direct effect on the availability or absence of nutrients by the plant. In addition, soil texture has a significant impact on water retention and soil fertility in terms of constituent amounts. Also, soil pH or soil acidity, which indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil, is a very important factor in creating the ability of plants to absorb elements. For most houseplants, it is recommended to prepare a mixture of fertilizers that are soluble in water. These fertilizers are either in powder form or in liquid form, which in both cases need to be mixed and diluted with water for use. Using the obtained solution, fertilization should be done once a week, once every 2 weeks or once a month according to the type of plant so that both the plant has proper nutrition and the soil is enriched in terms of nutrients. The fertilizer solution used is different depending on the type of plant, nutritional needs and lack of elements.
When it is said to prepare a fertilizer solution, it means that a balanced fertilizer is made of high-use elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium) and low-use elements or microelements (iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum) for nutritional balance. be prepared High-use elements means that the plant needs more of these elements for growth, and low-use elements mean that the amount of their use is less, but they are very important and necessary. It is also important to note that all elements are basically related to each other and it is important to be balanced. Therefore, you should not use only one type of fertilizer or one type of element on a regular basis for plants.
General advice on using fertilizers for houseplants
Various divisions can be defined for houseplants, but here, according to the method of fertilizing for houseplants that are kept, we classify them into the following:
- Plants that flower.
- Plants that have leaves.
- Cacti and succulents
- Types of bonsai
- Bamboo and cut flowers
Time and method of Fertilization:
- Fertilization and nutrition should be done for most plants during the growing season (spring to autumn), and plants that do not grow in winter should not be fertilized. Because the plants need a rest period when the amount of feeding and watering is reduced. (Attention to this point is ignored by many growers.) If your plant does not show any effects of growth at the beginning of winter, it indicates the arrival of winter and the plant's resting time.
- When you prepare a new plant or change the soil of the plant, due to the amount of elements in the prepared soil mixture, you do not need to fertilize until one month later.
- It is recommended to pay attention to the instructions regarding the time and dosage of using the prepared fertilizer. It is also recommended to have enough information about the type of houseplant you are keeping in terms of their nutrition, because many plants do not need feeding every week and it is better to fertilize them once a month. Especially plants that grow in low light conditions and generally grow less need less fertilization.
Paying attention to the fertilization method is also important; Generally, nutrients or fertilizers are absorbed through the roots or leaves of plants. For most indoor plants, it is recommended to fertilize through the roots and pour the mixture of fertilizer and water into the soil, because this method is safer and the possibility of damaging your plant is less.
- Do not use foliar spraying (spraying) of fertilizer and water for sensitive ornamental plants or flowering plants. Because if the correct dose of fertilizer is not observed, the possibility of direct damage to flowers and plants is not far from expected.